德国最适合留学的五大城市

  Germany is the world’s most popular non-Anglophone study destination, and the third most popular overall – only the US and the UK welcome more international students each year. Find out what motivates so many to study in Germany, and how to choose and apply to a German university.

  Germany is a country characterized by variety. Trendy and modern Berlin can seem a world away from the more traditional and conservative Munich. The gleaming skyscrapers of Frankfurt form a stark contrast to quaint Heidelberg. And if bustling and fast-paced Hamburg becomes too much, you can always retreat to the peaceful and picturesque Middle Rhine region.

  Universities in Germany offer plenty of choice, including some of the most prestigious institutions in Western Europe. Germany’s highest ranked university in the QS World University Rankings® 2016-2017 is Technische Universität München (ranked 60th in the world), followed by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (joint 68th) and Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (72nd).

  Beyond that, every major German city you can think of has at least one university ranked among the world’s best. A total of 15 German universities make the world’s top 250, and 31 are included within the world’s top 500. This establishes Germany well within the world’s higher education elite.

  In addition to world-class universities, Germany also offers high quality of life, relatively low tuition fees, extensive support and scholarship schemes for international students, and decent post-graduation employment prospects. So it’s easy to see why so many choose to study in Germany each year.

  德国是世界上最受欢迎的非英语国家的留学目的地,也是整体上第三受欢迎的留学目的地——只有美国英国年会迎来更多的国际留学生。你是否想要知道为什么这么多人选择去德国留学,以及如何选择和申请德国大学呢?

  德国是一个非常多样化的国家,这里有时髦和现代的柏林,也有更传统和保守的慕尼黑,法兰克福闪闪发光的摩天大楼与古典的海德堡行程了鲜明的对比。如果热闹和快节奏的汉堡让你觉得变化太多,你也能撤退到平静和风景如画的中东莱茵地区。

  德国有许多的大学可供你选择,包括一些在西欧地区最负盛名的大学。德国在2016-2017年QS世界大学排名中排名最高的大学是慕尼黑工业大学(世界排名第60位),紧随其后的是慕尼黑大学(并列第68位)和海德堡大学(第72位)。

  除此之外,每一个你能想到的德国主要的城市都有至少一所大学进入世界最佳大学之列。总共有15所德国大学位于世界大学排名前250名之内,并且还有31所大学位于世界大学排名前500名之内。这也使得德国成为世界高等教育精英国家中的一员。

  除了世界一流的大学之外,德国还有高质量的生活,相对较低的学费,为国际留学生们提供的广泛的支持和奖学金项目,毕业后光明就业前景。所以你也很容易明白每年为什么这么多人选择去德国留学了。那么德国有哪些城市最适合留学呢?请看出国留学网为大家独家翻译的德国留学城市推荐,希望对那些想要去德国留学的小伙伴们有帮助。

  Higher education in Germany is mainly funded by the state and as such it is literally free of charge for domestic and international students alike. The German higher education system consists of around 400 institutions, divided into public “tuition free” institutions that host over 2.4 million students across Germany, and a smaller number of private institutions that enroll less than 5% of the total student body.

  In the past decade, Germany has been politically struggling to ban tuition fees throughout the whole country; yet as a decentralized federal country it was difficult to bring all 16 of the federations to agree. In October 2014, consensus was reached and Germany is now offering access to free higher education to all students, regardless of their origin.

  德国高等教育的经费主要由国家支出,因此就是你能从字面上读到的意思,德国本国学生和国际学生都可以一视同仁地享受免学费的福利。德国高等教育体系由大约400所院校组成,分为公立“免学费”院校,在整个德国有超越240万学生就读,此外还有少数的私立学校,在读学生数量少于总学生数量的5%。

  在过去十年里,德国在政治上一直努力在全国实行废除学费的政策,但是德国作为一个分散的联邦制国家,很难使所有16个联邦同意。在2014年10月达成共识,德国现在为所有在德国接受高等教育的学生提供免学费的政策,不论其原籍国是哪里。(但是德国巴登符腾堡州计划从2017年秋季学期开始向国际学生收取学费)。

  Although you can study in Germany for free at public institutions as an undergraduate, there is a charge per semester for enrolment, confirmation and administration – usually between €150 and €250 (US$170-280) depending on the university. There may be an additional charge of around €100 for a “Semesterticket”, which covers public transport expenses for six months. If you exceed the standard period of study by more than four semesters, you may also face a long-term fee charge, which could be as much as €800 (US$920) per semester.

  Most universities in Germany are public. Private institutions are usually primarily dependent on tuition fees for their funding (though some also receive support from foundations), and can charge up to €20,000 (US$22,850) per year. The University of Witten-Herdecke, for example, charges around €15,000 (US$17,150) for a degree, but offers flexible finance options, giving students the choice of whether to pay tuition fees from the start or pay a percentage based on income after graduation.

  虽然你可以在德国的公立大学免收学费进行本科学习,但是你仍然需要支付一些费用用于每学期的注册、确认和管理,具体收费标准取决于你所就读的大学,这笔费用通常为150欧元到250欧元之间(约合170美元到280美元) 。除此之外,可能还会有大约100 欧元的“学期优惠乘车票”的额外费用,这个费用包括了你在六个月的时间内搭乘公共交通的费用。如果你在德国留学的时间超过了四个学期的标准时间,你也可能会需要支付“超期费”,这笔费用可能会高达800欧元(约合920美元) 每学期。

  在德国大多数的大学都是公立大学。私立大学通常靠从学生那里收取的学费来提供大学运作的资金,尽管有些私立大学也会得到基金会的支持,私立大学可能会收取高达20,000欧元(约合22,850美元) 每年的学费。举个例子来说,维藤黑尔德克大学,一个学位的学费大约是15,000欧元 (约合17,150美元) ,但是这所大学也提供灵活的缴费选项,让学生可以选择在一开始就一次性付清学费,或者是根据毕业之后的收入来按照百分比支付学费。

  If you want to study in Germany at master’s level, you may need to pay tuition fees. This is usually only the case for students who have not completed a related bachelor’s program at a university in Germany within the past few years – classed as “non-consecutive” students. Fees for non-consecutive master’s degrees vary, but can amount to as much as €10,000 (~US$11,100) per semester.

  If you plan to progress from undergraduate study in Germany straight to a related master’s program at a public university, fees are likely to remain low or non-existent.

  如果你想在德国就读硕士等级的课程,那么你需要支付相应的学费。但是通常只向那些没有在过去几年里在德国大学完成相应本科课程的学生收取——这种学生也被称为“非连续就读学生”。对于非连续就读的硕士学位课程的费用没有统一的标准,可能会高达10,000欧元(约合11,100美元)每学期。

  如果你打算在德国公立大学读完本科课程之后,直接继续就读相应专业的硕士科学,那么学费会很低,甚至根本没有。

  Berlin

  QS Best Student Cities ranking: 6th

  Germany has been growing steadily in popularity as a study abroad destination, and its capital city is also on the climb – rising three positions to rank 6th in the QS Best Student Cities 2017.

  Having flourished into one of the world’s coolest urban hubs – a major center of design, fashion, music and art to rival even New York or London – Berlin offers both unbeatable culture and a hot financial market, making it as perfect for history buffs and art aficionados as it is for budding financiers.

  And to sweeten the deal even further, all undergraduate degrees (and some postgraduate programs) are free at public universities in Germany, even for international students.

  While the German capital is not an academic hub on the scale of cities like London, Paris or Boston, three universities in Berlin feature in the QS World University Rankings® 2016-2017. The highest-ranked of these is Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin at joint 121st in the world, closely followed by Freie Universität Berlin at joint 123rd.

  Berlin’s growing appeal as an international study destination is also due in part to greater provision of courses in English, particularly at postgraduate level. With a high quality of living, affordable costs, a liberal atmosphere and a happening party and music scene, the German capital has a huge amount to offer international students of all backgrounds and interests.

  Internationally ranked universities in Berlin

  Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin; Freie Universität Berlin; Technische Universität Berlin

  More about Berlin

Number of universities ranked by QS

3

Highest-ranked institution

Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (joint 121st in the world)

Population

6,005,000

Average international fees (at ranked unis)

US$0

Desirability rank

12th

Employer Activity rank

79th

Affordability rank

16th

Student Experience rank

13th

  柏林

  2017年最佳留学城市排名:第6位

  德国作为一个留学的目的地的地位一直在稳步上升中,德国的首都城市柏林同样也要上升——在2017年最新发布的最佳留学城市排名中上升了3个位置,来到了全球第6位。

  这里是世界上最酷城市枢纽之一,一直都在蓬勃发展——这里是设计、时尚、音乐和艺术的主要中心,甚至能够打败其竞争对手纽约或伦敦——柏林不仅提供了无与伦比的文化,还有火热的金融市场,使其成为了历史爱好者和艺术爱好者还有新兴的金融家们最完美的选择。

  柏林更加锦上添花的一点是,在所有德国的公立大学就读所有本科学位课程(甚至还有一些研究生课程) 都是免费的,甚至国际学生都能享受这个福利。

  虽然德国的首都城市在学术中心的规模上并比不上伦敦、巴黎或者波士顿这样的城市,只有3所来自柏林的大学进入了2016-2017年QS世界大学排名中。在这些大学中,排名最高的大学是位于并列第121位的柏林洪堡大学,紧随其后的是柏林自由大学,位于并列第123位。

  柏林作为一个国际留学目的地越来越有吸引力的部分原因也是因为这里提供了更多英语授课的课程,尤其是在研究生等级的课程。在加上高质量的生活、能够负担得起的费用、自由的气氛以及随时发生的排队和音乐会,德国的首都能够为来自各种背景、有各种兴趣的国际学生提供许许多多你意想不到的东西。

  柏林依然充满着第二次世界大战和冷战结束后的历史厚重感,柏林虽然有着沉重的近代史,但是却创造了一个青春而富有创造性的城市。在过去的几十年中,柏林在世界主义,艺术派别和包容性这些方面都已经累积了足够的好名声。

  柏林城市仿佛沉浸在一片绿色海洋中,施普雷河从南面缓缓流过市区,普鲁士风格的古建筑与现代化的商业摩天大楼交相辉映。柏林正在重建“文化之都”,现有3座歌剧院、整个大型管弦乐团和几十座剧院以及无数的世界级博物馆。柏林的建筑多姿多彩,蔚为壮观。柏林是座文化名城,全年几乎都有文化节。作为一座开放、国际化和好客的大都会,柏林从未像现在一样充满创意和生机,代表着世界眼中的德国形象。快乐奔放,充满活力,也许还有些放肆,宽容友爱,轻松随意。

  柏林进入国际排名的大学

  柏林洪堡大学;柏林自由大学;柏林工业大学

  更多有关柏林的信息

进入QS世界大学排名的大学数量

3

所有大学中排名最高的大学

柏林洪堡大学(世界大学排名并列第121位)

人口数量

6,005,000

国际留学生平均学费数额(在进入排名的大学中)

0美元

合意性排名

第12位

雇主活动排名

第79位

负担能力排名

第16位

学生体验排名

第13位

  Munich

  QS Best Student Cities ranking: 9th

  In accordance with Germany’s growing status as an international study destination, the country has not just one but two entries in the top 10 of the QS Best Student Cities 2017. Munich this year places ninth, just three places behind capital Berlin.

  Located deep in Germany's southernmost region, Bavaria, Munich is the nation’s third-largest city, and its affluence and vibrancy make it a particularly desirable place to live. For many people outside of Germany, Munich is known first and foremost as the beer capital of the world – home to Oktoberfest, one of the world's biggest and booziest parties, which every year draws tourists in their hoards to road-test the local brew.

  Of course this is not the reason for Munich’s high score in the QS Best Student Cities index, but the city does score among the highest in the world in the Desirability category, which draws on a broad selection of sources designed to assess quality of life.

  Most notably, however, Munich has the second highest score for Affordability out of all of the top 10 cities, close behind fellow German city Berlin. This is due to the fact that no tuition fees are charged for undergraduate students at public universities in Germany, regardless of nationality. Although living costs tend to be slightly higher in Munich than Berlin, the incentive of free tuition combined with the distinctive Bavarian culture combines to make Munich one of the most appealing study destinations in Western Europe.

  As for universities in Munich, the city’s highest entrant in the QS World University Rankings® 2016-2017 is Technische Universität München at 60th, followed by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München in joint 68th – Germany’s top two representatives in the world rankings this year.

  Internationally ranked universities in Munich

  Technische Universität München; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

  More about Munich

Number of universities ranked by QS

2

Highest-ranked institution

Technische Universität München (60th  in the world)

Population

2,600,000

Average international fees (at ranked unis)

US$0

Desirability rank

13th

Employer Activity rank

18th

Affordability rank

23rd

Student Experience rank

26th

  慕尼黑

  2017年最佳留学城市排名:第9位

  与德国作为一个国际留学目的地的地位不断上升的趋势相一致,在2017年QS最佳留学城市排名的前10位中,德国有2个城市而不是之前的1个。慕尼黑在今年的排名中位列第9,落后于首都城市柏林3个名次。

  慕尼黑位于德国最南端的地区巴伐利亚,慕尼黑也是德国第三大城市,富裕并且充满活力,是特别理想的居住地。对于许多来自德国之外国家的人来说,首先了解慕尼黑,都是因为慕尼黑是啤酒之都——也是慕尼黑啤酒节的举办地,这可是世界上最大、最酩酊大醉的派对之一,每年吸引着众多游客前来这里品尝本地酿制的酒。

  当然这并不是慕尼黑在QS最佳留学城市排名中取得高分的原因,但是慕尼黑的确在“合意性”这一类别中是得到最高分数的城市之一,这一项评分指标旨在根据不同的需求评估生活的质量。

  但是,最引人注目的还是慕尼黑在“负担能力”这一项上的得分,在所有前10位的城市中慕尼黑的得分是第二高的,紧随另一个德国城市柏林。这是因为在德国就读公立大学的本科生不需要支付任何的学费,不管学生的国籍。虽然在慕尼黑的生活费用通常要比柏林稍高,但是免学费的政策加上独特的巴伐利亚文化,这样的组合仍然使得慕尼黑成为了西欧最具吸引力的留学目的地之一。

  至于位于慕尼黑的大学,在2016-2017年QS世界大学排名中排名最高的是位于第60位的慕尼黑工业大学,紧接着的是慕尼黑大学,位于并列第68位——这也是德国在今年的世界大学排名中排名最高的两所大学。

  早在拿破仑横扫欧洲的时代,慕尼黑就已经成为巴伐利亚王国的艺术重镇。艺术,升华了慕尼黑的魅力。慕尼黑现在还保留着原巴伐利亚王国都城的古朴风情,因此被人们称作“百万人的村庄”。慕尼黑还是德国仅次于法兰克福的第二大金融中心。

  慕尼黑在德国的3个百万以上人口城市中失业率最低,这里还是全球城市,是德国新经济的中心之一,是生物工程学、软件及服务业的中心,著名的宝马汽车、西门子电子的公司总部位于慕尼黑,此外麦当劳、微软、雅培等许多跨国公司的欧洲总部也设在这里。慕尼黑还是德国的博览会城市之一,每年举办二十多场博览会,如国际建筑机械博览会、国际手工业博览会、国际体育用品博览会及电子计算机及电子元件专业博览会。

  慕尼黑进入国际排名的大学

  慕尼黑工业大学;慕尼黑大学

  更多有关慕尼黑的信息

进入QS世界大学排名的大学数量

2

所有大学中排名最高的大学

慕尼黑工业大学(世界大学排名第60位)

人口数量

2,600,000

国际留学生平均学费数额(在进入排名的大学中)

0美元

合意性排名

第13位

雇主活动排名

第18位

负担能力排名

第23位

学生体验排名

第26位

  Heidelberg

  Despite being part of one of Germany’s most densely populated areas, Heidelberg manages to retain a certain quaint rustic charm. It’s popular with tourists, who come to see its ancient castle and red-roofed town center. Top universities in Heidelberg include the famous Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, which is Germany’s oldest and third-highest ranked university (ranked 72nd in the world). It boasts connections with more than 50 Nobel Prize winners, of whom 10 were (or are) professors at the university.

  海德堡

  尽管是德国人口密度最高的地区之一,海德堡仍然保留了一些古香古色的乡村魅力。这里非常受游客的欢迎,大家都想来看看这里的古老城堡和红屋顶的市中心。位于海德堡的顶级大学包括著名的海德堡大学,这是德国最古老也是排名第三高的大学(世界大学排名第72位)。这里与50多名诺贝尔奖获得者都有关联,其中有10位曾经(或者现在)是海德堡大学的教授。

  Cologne

  Cologne is known for its dramatic cathedral, Kölner Dom, its pleasant riverside, and its liberal and tolerant nature. It has a vibrant student community, is peppered with museums and art galleries, and does a good line in beer halls and independent stores, particularly in the Agnesviertel district. Direct trains run to Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam, and Luxembourg isn’t too far away either, so Cologne could be a good choice for those keen to explore Western Europe. Universities in Cologne include the flagship Universität Köln (University of Cologne), ranked joint 347th in the world, which is Germany’s largest and second-oldest university.

  科隆

  科隆凭借其戏剧性的大教堂科隆大教堂(Kölner Dom),宜人的河畔以及其自由和宽容的天性而广为人知。这里有一个充满活力的学生社区,还有许多博物馆和美术馆,以及许多啤酒屋和独立商店,特别是在Agnesviertel区。这里有直达车到巴黎、布鲁塞尔和阿姆斯特丹,并且卢森堡离这里也不太远,所以对于那些热衷于探索西欧的人来说科隆会是一个好的选择。位于科隆的大学包括这里的旗舰大学科隆大学,位于世界并列第347位,这也是德国最大和第二古老的大学。

  Frankfurt am Main

  The beating heart of Germany’s financial and business sectors, Frankfurt is also the home of the European Central Bank. Accordingly, its city center is a mass of gleaming skyscrapers, and its airport is the busiest in continental Europe. However, it’s not all work and no play. Frankfurt is known for offering some of the best nightlife in Germany and hosts a number of colorful festivals throughout the year. As for universities in Frankfurt, the most prestigious is Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, ranked joint 264th in the world, and particularly strong in social science subjects.

  法兰克福

  法兰克福是德国的金融和商业中心,欧洲中央银行也位于这里。因此,它的市中心有许多幢闪闪发光的摩天大楼,并且法兰克福的机场也是欧洲大陆最繁忙的机场。但是,这并不意味着法兰克福只有工作,没有娱乐。法兰克福提供一些德国最棒的夜生活也是非常有名的,并且这里全年还会主办一系列丰富多彩的节日。位于法兰克福的大学最有声望的是法兰克福大学,世界大学排名并列第264位,并且在社会科学专业领域实力尤其强劲。

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